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guide to CSS support

email design guidelines

the current state of video in email

the “getting started checklist” for new clients



guide to CSS support

Designing an HTML email that renders consistently across the major email clients can be very time consuming. Support for even simple CSS varies considerably between clients, and even different versions of the same client.

We’ve put together this PDF guide to save you the time and frustration of figuring it out for yourself. With 23 different email clients tested, we cover all the popular applications across desktop, web and mobile email.


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email design guidelines

At some stage in your career, it’s likely you’ll be asked by a client to design a HTML email. Before you rush to explain that all the cool kids are using social media, keep in mind that when done correctly, email is still one of the best ways to promote you and your clients online. In fact, a recent survey showed that every pound spent on email marketing this year generated more than £25 in return. That’s more than any other marketing channel, including the cool ones.


There are a whole host of ingredients that contribute to a good email marketing campaign. Permission, relevance, timeliness and engaging content are all important. Even so, the biggest challenge for designers still remains building an email that renders well across all the popular email clients.


Same same, but different
Before getting into the details, there are some uncomfortable facts that those new to HTML
email should be aware of. Building an email is not like building for the web. While web browsers
continue their onward march towards standards, many email clients have stubbornly stayed put.
Some have even gone backwards. In 2007, Microsoft switched the Outlook rendering engine from
Internet Explorer to Word. Yes, as in the word processor. Add to this the quirks of the major
web-based email clients like Gmail and Hotmail, sprinkle in a little Lotus Notes and you’ll soon
realise how different the email game is.


While it’s not without its challenges, rest assured it can be done. In our experience the key is to focus on three things. First, you should keep it simple. The more complex your email design, the more likely is it to choke on one of the popular clients with poor standards support. Second, you need to take your coding skills back a good decade. That often means nesting tables, bringing CSS inline and following the coding guidelines I’ll outline below. Finally, you need to test your designs regularly. Just because a template looks nice in Hotmail now, doesn’t mean it will next week.


Setting your lowest common denominator
To maintain your sanity, it’s a good idea to decide exactly which email clients you plan on supporting when building a HTML email. While general research is helpful, the email clients your subscribers are using can vary significantly from list to list. If you have the time there are a number of tools that can tell you specifically which email clients your subscribers are using. Trust ego, if the testing shows almost none of them are using a client like Lotus Notes, save yourself some frustration and ignore it altogether.


Knowing which email clients you’re targeting not only makes the building process easier, it can save you lots of time in the testing phase too. For the purpose of this article, we’ll be sharing techniques that give the best results across all of the popular clients, including the notorious ones like Gmail, Lotus Notes 6 and Outlook 2007. Just remember that pixel perfection in all email clients is a pipe dream.

Let’s get started.


Use tables for layout
Because clients like Gmail and Outlook 2007 have poor support for float, margin and padding, you’ll need to use tables as the framework of your email. While nested tables are widely supported, consistent treatment of width, margin and padding within table cells is not. For the best results, keep the following in mind when coding your table structure.


Set the width in each cell, not the table

When you combine table widths, td widths, td padding and CSS padding into an email, the final result is different in almost every email client. The most reliable way to set the width of your table is to set a width for each cell, not for the table itself.


<table cellspacing="0" cellpadding="10" border="0">
<td width="80"></td>
<td width="280"></td>

Never assume that if you don’t specify a cell width the email client will figure it out. It won’t. Also avoid using percentage based widths. Clients like Outlook 2007 don’t respect them, especially for nested tables. Stick to pixels. If you want to add padding to each cell, use either the cellpadding attribute of the table or CSS padding for each cell, but never combine the two.


Err toward nesting

Table nesting is far more reliable than setting left and right margins or padding for table cells. If you can achieve the same effect by table nesting, that will always give you the best result across the buggier email clients.


Use a container table for body background colours

Many email clients ignore background colours specified in your CSS or the <body> tag. To work around this, wrap your entire email with a 100% width table and give that a background colour.


<table cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0" border="0" width="100%">
<td bgcolor=”#000000”>
Your email code goes here.

You can use the same approach for background images too. Just remember that some email clients don’t support them, so always provide a fallback colour.


Avoid unnecessary whitespace in table cells

Where possible, avoid whitespace between your <td> tags. Some email clients (ahem, Yahoo! and Hotmail) can add additional padding above or below the cell contents in some scenarios, breaking your design for no apparent reason.


CSS and general font formatting
While some email designers do their best to avoid CSS altogether and rely on the dreaded <font> tag, the truth is many CSS properties are well supported by most email clients. See this comprehensive list of CSS support across the major clients for a good idea of the safe properties and those that should be avoided.


Always move your CSS inline

Gmail is the culprit for this one. By stripping the CSS from the <head> and <body> of any email, we’re left with no choice but to move all CSS inline. The good news is this is something you can almost completely automate. Free services like Premailer will move all CSS inline with the click of a button. I recommend leaving this step to the end of your build process so you can utilize all the benefits of CSS.


Avoid shorthand for fonts and hex notation

A number of email clients reject CSS shorthand for the font property. For example, never set your font styles like this.


p {
font:bold 1em/1.2em georgia,times,serif;
Instead, declare the properties individually like this.

p {
font-weight: bold;
font-size: 1em;
line-height: 1.2em;
font-family: georgia,times,serif;

While we’re on the topic of fonts, we recently tested every conceivable variation of @font-face across the major email clients. The results were dismal, so unfortunately it’s web-safe fonts in email for the foreseeable future.


When declaring the colour property in your CSS, some email clients don’t support shorthand hexadecimal colours like color:#f60; instead of color:#ff6600;. Stick to the longhand approach for the best results.



Just like table cell spacing, paragraph spacing can be tricky to get a consistent result across the board. We’ve seen many designers revert to using double <br /> or DIVs with inline CSS margins to work around these shortfalls, but recent testing showed that paragraph support is now reliable enough to use in most cases (there was a time when Yahoo! didn’t support the paragraph tag at all).


The best approach is to set the margin inline via CSS for every paragraph in your email, like so:


p {
margin: 0 0 1.6em 0;

Again, do this via CSS in the head when building your email, then use Premailer to bring it inline for each paragraph later.


If part of your design is height-sensitive and calls for pixel perfection, we recommend avoiding paragraphs altogether and setting the text formatting inline in the table cell. You might need to use table nesting or cellpadding / CSS to get the desired result. Here’s an example:


<td width="200" style="font-weight:bold; font-size:1em; line-height:1.2em; font-family:georgia,'times',serif;">your height sensitive text</td>


Some email clients will overwrite your link colours with their defaults, and you can avoid this by taking two steps. First, set a default colour for each link inline like so:


<a href="" style="color:#ff00ff">this is a link</a>
Next, add a redundant span inside the a tag.

<a href="" style="color:#ff00ff"><span style="color:#ff00ff">this is a link</span></a>

To some this may be overkill, but if link colour is important to your design then a superfluous span is the best way to achieve consistency.


Images in HTML emails
The most important thing to remember about images in email is that they won’t be visible by default for many subscribers. If you start your design with that assumption, it forces you to keep things simple and ensure no important content is suppressed by image blocking.


With this in mind, here are the essentials to remember when using images in HTML email:


Avoid spacer images

While the combination of spacer images and nested tables was popular on the web ten years ago, image blocking in many email clients has ruled it out as a reliable technique today. Most clients replace images with an empty placeholder in the same dimensions, others strip the image altogether. Given image blocking is on by default in most email clients, this can lead to a poor first impression for many of your subscribers. Stick to fixed cell widths to keep your formatting in place with or without images.


Always include the dimensions of your image

If you forget to set the dimensions for each image, a number of clients will invent their own sizes when images are blocked and break your layout. Also, ensure that any images are correctly sized before adding them to your email. Some email clients will ignore the dimensions specified in code and rely on the true dimensions of your image.


Avoid PNGs

Lotus Notes 6 and 7 don’t support 8-bit or 24-bit PNG images, so stick with the GIF or JPG formats for all images, even if it means some additional file size.


Provide fallback colors for background images

Outlook 2007 has no support for background images (aside from this hack to get full page background images working). If you want to use a background image in your design, always provide a background color the email client can fall back on. This solves both the image blocking and Outlook 2007 problem simultaneously.


Don’t forget alt text

Lack of standards support means email clients have long destroyed the chances of a semantic and accessible HTML email. Even still, providing alt text is important from an image blocking perspective. Even with images suppressed by default, many email clients will display the provided alt text instead. Just remember that some email clients like Outlook 2007, Hotmail and Apple Mail don’t support alt text at all when images are blocked.


Use the display hack for Hotmail

For some inexplicable reason, Windows Live Hotmail adds a few pixels of additional padding below images. A workaround is to set the display property like so.


img {display:block;}

This removes the padding in Hotmail and still gives you the predicable result in other email clients.


Don’t use floats

Both Outlook 2007 and earlier versions of Notes offer no support for the float property. Instead, use the align attribute of the img tag to float images in your email.


<img src="image.jpg" align="right">
If you’re seeing strange image behavior in Yahoo! Mail, adding align=“top” to your images can often solve this problem.


Video in email
With no support for JavaScript or the object tag, video in email (if you can call it that) has long been limited to animated gifs. However, some recent research we did into the HTML5 video tag in email showed some promising results.


Turns out HTML5 video does work in many email clients right now, including Apple Mail, Entourage 2008, MobileMe and the iPhone. The real benefit of this approach is that if the video isn’t supported, you can provide reliable fallback content such as an animated GIF or a clickable image linking to the video in the browser.


Of course, the question of whether you should add video to email is another issue altogether. If you lean toward the “yes” side check out the technique with code samples.


What about mobile email?
The mobile email landscape was a huge mess until recently. With the advent of the iPhone, Android and big improvements from Palm and RIM, it’s becoming less important to think of mobile as a different email platform altogether.


That said, there are a few key pointers to keep in mind when coding your emails to get a decent result for your more mobile subscribers.


Keep the width less than 600 pixels

Because of email client preview panes, this rule was important long before mobile email clients came of age. In truth, the iPhone and Pre have a viewport of 320 pixels, the Droid 480 pixels and the Blackberry models hover around 360 pixels. Sticking to a maximum of 600 pixels wide ensures your design should still be readable when scaled down for each device. This width also gives good results in desktop and web-based preview panes.


Be aware of automatic text resizing

In what is almost always a good feature, email clients using webkit (such as the iPhone, Pre and Android) can automatically adjust font sizes to increase readability. If testing shows this feature is doing more harm than good to your design, you can always disable it with the following CSS rule:

-webkit-text-size-adjust: none;

Don’t forget to test
While standards support in email clients hasn’t made much progress in the last few years, there has been continual change (for better or worse) in some email clients. Web-based providers like Yahoo!, Hotmail and Gmail are notorious for this. On countless occasions I’ve seen a proven design suddenly stop working without explanation.


For this reason alone it’s important to retest your email designs on a regular basis. We find a quick test every month or so does the trick, especially in the web-based clients. The good news is that after designing and testing a few HTML email campaigns, you will find that order will emerge from the chaos. Many of these pitfalls will become quite predictable and your inbox-friendly designs will take shape with them in mind.


Looking ahead
Designing HTML email can be a tough pill for new designers and standardistas to swallow, especially given the fickle and retrospective nature of email clients today. With HTML5 just around the corner we are entering a new, uncertain phase. Will email client developers take the opportunity to repent on past mistakes and bring email clients into the present? The aim of groups such as the Email Standards Project is to make much of the above advice as redundant as the long-forgotten <blink> and <marquee> tags, however, only time will tell if this is to become a reality.


Although not the most compliant (or fashionable) medium, the results speak for themselves – email is, and will continue to be one of the most successful and targeted marketing channels available to you. As a designer with HTML email design skills in your arsenal, you have the opportunity to not only broaden your service offering, but gain a unique appreciation of how vital standards are.


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the current state of video in email

Video support in email is quickly becoming the hottest topic in email marketing circles. Many years ago most desktop and web-based email clients actually supported video in email. As security tightened and spam became a bigger problem, the belt was tightened and video support became a thing of the past.

With the proliferation of video on the web the past couple of years through improvements in software, bandwidth and available content, the email industry is again begging the question: can it be done? We decided to find out.


Embedding methods
Just like the web, there is a range of different approaches you can take to try and display video in an email. Here’s a list of the approaches we tried for the purpose of this test.


Thanks to its ubiquity and video quality, Flash has fast become the de facto standard for displaying video on the web. The default way for embedding Flash in a web page is via an OBJECT tag with an EMBED tag placed inside as a fallback mechanism. Because we can’t use JavaScript in an email, there is no way to detect if Flash is installed and display alternate content instead. We tested Flash support in all the major email clients 3 years ago and the results weren’t pretty. Perhaps some email clients have improved their support since then. We’ll find out soon enough.


We were initially hesitant to try embedding techniques using players with less market penetration that relied on a specific player or operating system being installed. But, given the fact that Flash was so convincingly blocked in email clients, it seems anything is worth a try. Like Flash, Quicktime is typically inserted using the OBJECT and EMBED tags, so the results will likely be consistent with Flash.


Windows Media
Again, Windows Media files are also inserted using the OBJECT and EMBED tags.


Animated GIF
Ahhh, animated GIFs. Despite how old this technology is, recent tests indicate this is probably the most reliable way to include video in email. The obvious drawbacks here are file size, video quality and lack of audio.


Java Applet
Just like JavaScript and Flash, we had assumed that most email clients, either desktop, web or mobile wouldn’t support Java applets. Only one way to find out. Java applets are embedded into a page via the APPLET tag.


Embedded MPEG
Just like embedding images in email using base64 encoding, you can take the same approach with video. This approach does have it’s own limitations, the only way to embed a video in a HTML page without the object or embed tags is with the little known dynsrc attribute of the img tag. This tag isn’t well known because it only works in Internet Explorer (and support has been dropped in IE8). From the start this approach is a long shot, but it should work in several version of Outlook (which uses IE as the rendering engine), and potentially to anyone using a web-based email client with IE.

Embedded Animated GIF
Theoretically, this should give them the same results as referencing the image externally. But, embedding an image has been known to get around image blocking in some email clients, so we figured it would also be worth looking at.

Test suite
To ensure all the popular web, desktop and mobile email clients were covered, we ran my test emails through the following email clients.


Desktop email clients
• AOL 10
• Apple Mail
• Entourage 2008
• Lotus Notes 6
• Outlook 2003
• Outlook 2007
• Thunderbird
• Windows Mail


Web-based email clients
• AOL Web
• Gmail
• MobileMe
• Windows Live Mail
• Yahoo! Mail


Mobile email clients
• Blackberry Bold
• iPhone 2.2
• Windows Mobile 5
• Windows Mobile 6


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the “getting started checklist” for new clients

To make sure you get the best results possible for each client you’re sending campaigns for, following this checklist for each new client you add to your ego account.



1. Explain permission to your client and capture new subscribers

Clearly explain the concept of permission

Sending emails without permission can not only land your client in trouble, you’ll go down with them. It doesn’t need to be complicated though. As long as your client can prove they received permission from everyone on their list to contact them about the subject of their email, you’re covered. Learn more in our basics of permission article.

Work out who they can email out of their existing contacts/subscribers

Work out which of their current contacts comply with our permission requirements and import them into your client’s account.

Add a subscribe form to their site and set expectations

If your client has a web site, you should add an email subscribe form in a prominent position to capture new subscribers. You might also want to consider adding an opt-in checkbox to any existing forms.You can also specify custom landing pages so the subscriber can be redirected back to a confirmation page on your client’s web site. Finally, make sure your subscribe forms set expectations about what your client will be contacting them about and how often.


2. Design your client’s email newsletter

Tell the recipient who your client is and how your client got their details

It’s so important to convey how you got someone’s email address when you’re contacting them. Add a note at the top of every template you design for this client that clearly explains who your client is and how they obtained their email address. Also, to ensure compliancy with the US CAN-SPAM laws, you need to include your client’s street address in every template you design for them.

Make it easy for them to unsubscribe

Every ego campaign must include an unsubscribe link, but it’s very important not to hide the link in small text at the bottom of your email. A prominent unsubscribe link conveys trust to all recipients and shows you’re serious about maintaining permission.

Link to a web version

If your recipient is using an older email client that has problems displaying your email, they should always be provided with a web-based version they can view in their browser. You can do this with a single tag.

Ask to be added to their contact list

Add a note to your template asking your recipients to add your sending email address to their address book. Many ISP’s allow your recipients to filter emails from unknown senders. Plus, images are displayed by default if you’re in the address book for many popular email clients.

Avoid excessive use of images

Many of today’s popular email clients block images by default. Make sure any important content like headlines, titles and calls to action are text based instead of image based. We’ve written loads about this topic here.

Be smart with your CSS

Deciding whether or not to go for a CSS or table based template depends on a few things, but most important of these is how consistent your client wants their design to be in different email clients. You can download a great free templates to get started and learn more about what CSS is and isn’t support in email clients here.

Test, test, test

Testing your template design before your client starts sending is absolutely crucial. Almost every email environment will render your client’s email differently. That’s why we’ve provided an automated testing tool, that for a small fee, can do all the hard work for you. You can test across multiple email clients including Outlook 07, Apple Mail and Gmail, as well as mobile clients such as Blackberry and Windows Mobile.


3. Be smart when sending

Use a consistent from name, email address and subject

Make sure you use the same details for every campaign you send for your clients. Legally, this needs to be a valid email address and should contain your client’s domain if they have one. Keeping it consistent ties in with our address book recommendation above.

Set up a small test list

On top of your client’s main lists, you should also add a small test list possibly consisting of yourself and your client’s email address. You also want to receive what your client’s recipients are receiving to ensure you know about any problems that may arise.


4. Measure the results

Check out your opens, clicks and unsubscribes

Measure and compare results over subsequent campaigns. Test different subject lines and calls to action between campaigns. Work with your client to learn what works and doesn’t work for their particular subscribers.

Tweak the template and newsletter copy based on the results

Collate your findings and make real changes to your email design or newsletter content. If one particular topic is by far the most popular in the link activity report, considering leading your newsletter with that topic for each email.


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